Current Members and Visitors

= first term only  = second term only

 

Members

Hassan Farhang Ansari
Institute for Advanced Study
Islamic Law and Theology

Alexander Bauer 
Queens College, City University of New York
Archaeology of the Black Sea

Roland Betancourt
University of California, Irvine
Art History and Byzantine Studies

Raoul Birnbaum 
University of California, Santa Cruz
Buddhist Studies

Antoine Borrut
University of Maryland, College Park
Early Islamic History and Historiography

Malcolm Bull 
University of Oxford
Art History and Eighteenth-Century Studies

Alejandro Cañeque
University of Maryland, College Park
Colonial Latin America, Spanish Empire

Edward Champlin
Princeton University
Ancient History, Roman Cultural History

Andrew Chittick
Eckerd College
Early Medieval China

Hwisang Cho
Xavier University
Korean History

Jennifer Davis 
The Catholic University of America
Early Medieval History

Muriel Arruebo Debie 
École Pratique des Hautes Études
Syriac Studies and Late Antiquity

Jacco Dieleman 
University of California, Los Angeles
Egyptology, Papyrology, Religious Studies

Thomas Dodman
Boston College
Eighteenth-Century Cultural History

Emine Fetvaci
Boston University
Islamic Art, Ottoman Art

Ildar Garipzanov 
University of Oslo
Early Medieval History

Nina Glibetic
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Byzantine Studies

Robert Goulding
University of Notre Dame
History of Early Modern Optics

Andrea Guidi 
Birkbeck, University of London
Military History, Machiavelli

Francesco Guizzi 
Sapienza University of Rome
Ancient History and Greek Epigraphy

Susanne Hakenbeck 
University of Cambridge
Early Medieval Archaeology

Jane Hathaway 
The Ohio State University
Ottoman History

Elisabeth Kaske
Carnegie Mellon University
Late Imperial China

Christos Kremmydas 
Royal Holloway, University of London
Classics, Attic Oratory

Yu-chih Lai
Academia Sinica, Taiwan
Chinese Art History and Visual Culture

Klaus Larres
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
History of International Relations

Christian Lentz 
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
History of Modern Southeast Asia

Rebecca Maloy
University of Colorado Boulder
Medieval Music

Federico Marcon
Princeton University
History of Early Modern Japan

Rudolph Matthee 
University of Delaware
Early Modern Iran

Fabien Montcher
Saint Louis University
Intellectual and Political History
(John Elliott Member)

Giuliano Mori
Institute for Advanced Study
Early Modern Intellectual History

Ohad Nachtomy 
Bar-Ilan University
History of Philosophy and Science

Patrick O'Banion 
Lindenwood University
Religious Life in Early Modern Spain

Klaus Oschema
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
Late Medieval Culture and Society
(Gerda Henkel Member)

Anastasios (Tom) Papademetriou 
Stockton University
Ottoman History

Fabian Reiter 
Universität Trier
Ancient History, Papyrology

Frank Rexroth
University of Göttingen
Medieval Intellectual History

Priscilla Roberts 
University of Hong Kong
History of International Relations

Nicolaas Rupke
Washington and Lee University
History of Biology

Daniel Sherman 
The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Art History and Modern French Cultural History

Nancy Sinkoff
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Jewish History

Columba Stewart
Saint John's University
Early Medieval History

Antonio Stramaglia 
Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale
Classical Philology

Cameron Strang
University of Nevada, Reno
History of Science in North America

Despina Stratigakos
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
German and Norwegian Architecture

Mark Tauger
West Virginia University
Soviet Agriculture

Roberto Tottoli
Università degli Studi di Napoli L'Orientale
Early Islam, Islamic Literature

Matthew Waters 
University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire
Achaemenid Persia/Ancient Near East

Thomas Weber-Karyotakis 
The University of Jordan
Classical Archaeology, Greco-Roman Sculpture in the Middle East

Xin Yu
Fudan University
Medieval Chinese History

Visitors

Daniela Summa 
Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Greek Epigraphy

Karina Urbach
University of London
Modern International Relations & Jewish Family History
(long-term Visitor)

Helmut Zander 
Universität Freiburg
History of Religion

 

Member

 

Hassan Ansari

Islamic Law and Theology 
Institute for Advanced Study 

Member in residence for:   Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8322    Email: afarhang1349@ias.edu

Research Interest: Hassan Ansari focuses on the study of Islamic theology, philosophy, law, and legal theory.

Additional information: Homepage   CV

Alexander Bauer

Archaeology of the Black Sea
Queens College, City University of New York

Member in residence for:   Second Term

Project Title: Investigating Long-term Cycles of Interaction in the Bronze Age Black Sea

Research Abstract: This project investigates how alternating cycles of integration and dis-integration waxed and waned across Black Sea networks of connectivity during the Bronze Age (end 4th-2nd millennium BCE), prior to the Greek colonial ones of the first millennium BCE. Presenting the first comparative analysis  of  pottery  technology alongside other material culture traditions from around Black Sea region at this time, this study critically engages with theories of “emergence” and cultural circulation to examine whether decentralized networks of interaction may have engendered new social forms in long-term historical rhythms. It is hypothesized that these phases likely occurred in response to broader interregional dynamics of connectivity between the Near East, southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. This project promises to make important contributions to current understandings of the region, as well as to comparative work on colonialism and the role of social interaction in the development and maintenance of communities. Most immediately, the pre-Colonial history of the Black Sea has never been adequately examined, as earlier studies of the region began with the Greek Colonization in the 7th century BCE and viewed it as an area “peripheral” to the Near East and Europe, largely disarticulated prior to the arrival of Greek colonists. The research to be undertaken here seeks to challenge that view by suggesting that ongoing, informal networks of interaction existed across the region during the previous millennia. As such it promises new insight into how local networks of interaction developed and were maintained prior to a major colonial episode. More broadly, this project seeks to reassess current approaches to trade and interaction and how interregional connectivity is interpreted archaeologically. It critically engages with current scholarship on the “materiality” of social practice and will provide an extended example of how community identities may be both expressed through and constituted by material culture in circulation.

Additional informationHomepage

Roland Betancourt

Art History and Byzantine Studies
University of California, Irvine

Member in residence for:    Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609 734-8348    Email: betancourt@ias.edu

Project Title: The Proleptic Image: Time, Image, and Event in Byzantium

Research Abstract: Exploring conceptions of time and temporality in Byzantium in relation to theories of representation, this project explores: First, the classical and late-antique foundations of Byzantine thought on time as articulated through historical chronicles, theology, and philosophy. Second, how a sense of a future was constructed in relation to present-oriented human experience, paying particular attention to the eschatological underpinnings of Christian time. And, third, how the theory and language of time manifested itself in religious representation in terms of liturgical performance and the icon. At stake in this project is the possibility of articulating a Byzantine alternative to the dominant modernist and western theories of time and historiography.

Additional informationHomepage

Raoul Birnbaum

Buddhist Studies
University of California, Santa Cruz

Member in residence for:  First Term 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8166    Email: rabirnbaum@ias.edu

Project Title: Hongyi and His Many Worlds: A Modern Man Becomes a Monk in Twentieth-Century China

Research Abstract: This study looks to the trajectory of the life of an unusual and influential “modern man” in China – an artist, writer, composer, revolutionary, and educator – who became a Buddhist monk at mid-life. Why did Hongyi (1880-1942) make this unusual choice, how did he reconstruct himself from artistic and literary legend to accomplished and even exemplary monastic leader, whose vibrant influence still endures in China? Renowned as one of the pioneering modern men who sought to transform China at the beginning of the twentieth century, in what ways did Hongyi revalue and restate these aims as a Buddhist monk?

Additional information: Homepage

Antoine Borrut

Early Islamic History and Historiography
University of Maryland, College Park

Member in residence for: Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8361     Email: aborrut@ias.edu

Project Title: Heaven and History: Astrologers, Religious Scholars, and the Making of Islamic History

Research Interest: My book project, tentatively entitled Heaven and History: Astrologers, Religious Scholars, and the Making of Islamic History, aims to address the construction of historical knowledge during the first centuries of Islam (7th-10th centuries CE) and to shed light on the much-neglected genre of astrological histories.

Additional information: Homepage   CV

Malcolm Bull

Art History and Eighteenth-Century Studies
University of Oxford

Member in residence for: First Term 

Research Interest: Malcolm Bull works in art history and, more broadly, the history of ideas. He is currently interested in painting in Italy in the eighteenth century, and in changing attitudes to justice and mercy during the same period.

Additional information: Homepage

Alejandro Cañeque

Colonial Latin America, Spanish Empire
University of Maryland, College Park

Member in residence for: Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8321     Email: acaneque@ias.edu

Project Title: An Empire of Martyrs: Religion and Power on the Frontiers of the Spanish Empire

Research Abstract: This book-length project explores the historical significance of the propagation of stories and images of martyrdom around the Spanish Empire from the late- sixteenth to the mid-eighteenth centuries. While the historiography of colonial Spanish America has shown great interest in processes of spiritual conquest, conversion to Christianity, and extirpation of idolatries, it has overlooked the phenomenon of martyrdom (understood as the killing of numerous members of the religious orders in the course of their attempts to convert the indigenous populations of remote frontier regions). These killings generated an enormous amount of documentation that is still awaiting interpretation. However, the presence of martyrs was not limited to the frontiers of the New World. It took on a global scale, in the same way as the Spanish empire was a global empire. My book identifies four frontiers of martyrdom: England (the frontier of heresy), North Africa (the frontier of infidelity), Japan (the frontier of civilized paganism), and northern Mexico and the eastern and southern frontiers of the viceroyalty of Peru (the frontier of savage paganism). In this regard, my book approaches the study of the Spanish Empire as an integrated and coherent unit of analysis. My project reconstructs the culture of martyrdom that pervaded the empire since the late-sixteenth century and argues that martyrdom was not a strictly religious phenomenon, suggesting that the stories and images of martyrdom were powerful tools which, in the hands of the religious orders, served to, on the one hand, fight Protestantism in Europe and Islam in the Mediterranean, and, on the other, to consolidate and expand Spanish colonialism in Asia and the New World. In the last analysis, this research project uses martyrdom as a window through which to interpret the intersection of religion and Spanish imperial power. By connecting the many different worlds that comprised the early modern Spanish world, this book contributes to a better comprehension of the ways in which ideas and practices circulated around the empire.

Additional information: Homepage

Edward Champlin

Ancient History, Roman Cultural History
Princeton University

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone 609-734-8345    Email: champlin@ias.edu

Project Title: Tiberius on Capri

Research Abstract: The greatest general of his age, sole ruler of Rome as its Princeps (First Citizen) from 14 to 37 CE, Tiberius Caesar spent the last eleven years of his life (26-37 CE) on the island of Capri, which he owned, devoting himself to his studies and as secluded as he could be from the world which he ruled. I have little interest in standard, politically centered, source-driven narrative biographies. My starting point is a selfish one: what makes Tiberius interesting? The answer lies in his passion for subjects like astrology or gastronomy, above all mythology, which, far from being trivial or eccentric, were central to cultural debates of the day. The tensions and creative interactions between culture, specifically learned culture, and politics, between reclusive scholarship and supreme power, between the passions of Tiberius and his sway over tens of millions of souls, go far to explain not only his baffling personality but also the early development of the public image and attributes of a Roman emperor, which is the ultimate ancestor of our western concept of an "emperor". Accordingly, I pass through a rather startling belief that he would be resurrected, and what that implies, to consider the nature of and reasons for his blackening in our literary sources and the alternate folkloric image of the wise and benevolent ruler, and then to focus on his deep implication in the culture wars of his day, above all through the use and abuse of mythology. Narrative biographies and chronological siftings of evidence are essential resources, but I hope that my approach will be more interesting, if not more valuable, to other humanistic studies.

Andrew Chittick

Early Medieval China
Eckerd College

Member in residence for: Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8164     Email: achittick@ias.edu

Project Title: The Jiankang Empire in Chinese and World History

Research Abstract: This project re-envisions the course of Asian history and the evolution of Han Chinese ethnicity by focusing on a critical period in its development, the four centuries known as the early medieval period (ca. 200-600 CE) which followed the breakup of the Han Empire. The period has long been considered especially difficult to study, and its complex history remains poorly explained to those outside the field. Traditional historiography assumes the idea of political and cultural unity had already become widespread, and views the north-south division during the period as an anomalous state of military and political weakness. The history of the southern Jiankang Empire, which rose in the Yangzi delta region to become one of the great Asian empires of its time, has been submerged by this traditional focus on unity, which sees the Empire as exemplifying the southward penetration of a unified northern “Chinese” culture and people. Using insights from critical Han studies and GIS-based spatial analysis, I analyze the environmental, cultural, military, and political genesis of the Jiankang Empire, showing that the native southerners who dominated the Empire instead sought to stop the southward advance of northern influence. They developed a distinctive political culture that blended Han imperial traditions with Buddhist cosmology and institutions, and aggressively pursued maritime trade and diplomacy with Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia, spreading their cultural  influence  and  compelling the re-conceptualization of cultural and political space. Centuries of division between north and south also led to an increasing ethnicization of cultural differences, demonstrating the contingency of Han Chinese ethnicity and polity and the prospect of alternative ethnogenesis in East Asia. My work will bring these developments to the attention of scholars of later periods of Chinese history, as well as those working in comparative medieval history and culture.

Hwisang Cho

Korean History
Xavier University

Member in residence for: Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8161     Email: hcho@ias.edu

Project Title: The Power of the Brush: Epistolary Revolution in Early Modern Korea

Research Abstract: This project explores how new modes of writing and reading developed in epistolary culture brought about academic, social, and political changes in early modern Korea. It examines the physical peculiarities of new letter forms, the appropriation of letters for other purposes after their communicative functions, and the rise of diverse political epistolary genres in the Chosŏn dynasty (1392-1910). The new epistolary culture started flourishing in the sixteenth century, and it played various roles in shaping political and cultural power. The new letter forms, such as spiral letters and boomerang letters, emerged first in vernacular Korean letters and later in literary Chinese letters. These forms required both writers and readers to rotate the page counterclockwise by 90 degrees two or three times to write and read the messages; thus, correspondents were physically as well as intellectually engaged in the letters. The rise and fall of these forms reveal how the materiality of texts and subsequent changes in reading and writing practices interacted with the political ideas of the time. Letters had also become the main instructional tools for Neo-Confucian studies, as means of self-reflection and self-cultivation and also as open discursive spaces for academic debates. Moreover, new epistolary genres, such as circular letters, newsletters, and joint memorials, facilitated the collective activism of politically marginalized social actors, the spread of their political opinions, and the subsequent mobilization of new political groups. By focusing on letters and their sociopolitical adaptations, this book demonstrates that the culture of Chosŏn Korea was far from a simple reflection of the canonized hierarchy, a dynamic discursive site in which power was not concentrated in a few highest state authorities but was diffused and enacted by different social actors. "The Power of the Brush" characterizes the Chosŏn social actors' fashionable choice of a radical lifestyle focused on letter writing, which geared their social life to yield actual political and cultural power.

Jennifer Davis

Early Medieval History
The Catholic University of America

Member in residence for: Second Term 

Project Title: Per capitularios nostros: Law and its Uses in the Frankish Kingdoms

Research Abstract: My current book project, Per capitularios nostros: Law and its Uses in the Frankish Kingdoms, investigates why the Franks invented the capitularies, a new genre of law in the post-Roman period, and how the use of these laws became a barometer for social and political change in the Frankish kingdoms. During the course of the sixth century, the Franks, the strongest of the post-Roman successor societies, developed a new form of law, the capitulary. The capitularies were issued by Frankish kings, but they were copied and thus preserved for us by people throughout the lands conquered by the Franks (and sometimes beyond the Frankish borders) who chose to record them for their own purposes. After the fall of the Carolingians, the most powerful Frankish dynasty, capitularies that no longer had legal force continued to be copied. These texts were often used as a way of asserting Frankish identity in a world where the Franks were no longer united politically. By basing my work on the approximately two hundred and fifty surviving manuscripts of capitularies, I am able to present an innovative vision of the use of law, one founded on explicating how and why different communities chose to adapt royal law for their own purposes. In so doing, I use the particularly Frankish legal genre of the capitulary as a window into the social, political, and cultural transformations which remade Europe during the sixth to twelfth a centuries.

Muriel Arruebo Debie

Syriac Studies and Late Antiquity
École Pratique des Hautes Études

Member in residence for: Year  

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8340     Email: mdebie@ias.edu

Project Title: History and Apocalyptic in the Christian Near East: the Kaleidoscope of the Seventh Century

Research Abstract: My book project, entitled History and Apocalyptic in the Christian Near East: the Kaleidoscope of the Seventh Century aims to offer a deconstruction of the prevalent monolithic view of the seventh century. It will show how the apocalyptic currents that pervaded the three monotheisms are a major interpretative key of the period. It will also advocate for a better appreciation of the various Christian affiliations that do justice to the local as well as theological differences in their understanding of history. It will contend that diversity is the catchword for understanding the competing memories and historical periodizations in presence. The consequences of the way the past, present and future were envisioned and written about by the different communities in this time of fervent religious competition have been largely overlooked. The sources modern historians use for writing the history of this period display a strong confessional bias, yet modern historians still strive to properly understand the whole range of sources in all their particular nuances. The different views of history held by the various communities according to their own theology of history—Greek, Armenian, Syriac or Coptic—reflect geographical as well as confessional differences. They offer an image of the seventh century that is a kaleidoscope of different interpretations not only of the contemporary events but also of the past and the future of the Christian communities who were challenged as much religiously as they were politically and military by the Zoroastrian Persians and then the Muslim Arabs. The goal of History and Apocalyptic is to bring to the fore precisely the differences in the construction of cultural memories in the various Christian traditions. It is also to understand their conception of empire at a time of shifting frontiers and strong apocalyptic expectations shared by the various religions in presence. Acknowledging the diversity of these sources—and reading them against the backdrop of Jewish, Persian, and Muslim ones—this book will bring to light the kaleidoscope they offer the modern historian.

Additional information: Homepage

Jacco Dieleman

Egyptology, Papyrology, Religious Studies
University of California, Los Angeles

Member in residence for: First Term 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8360    Email: dieleman@ias.edu

Project Title: Transformations in Egyptian scribal culture in the Hellenistic and Roman periods

Research Abstract: The aim of the project is to come to a better understanding of how Egyptian scribal culture responded to the political, economic, cultural, and linguistic challenges posed by the imposition of Hellenistic and Roman rule (4th c. BCE – 4th c. CE). Instead of describing the final centuries of Egyptian scribal activity in terms of decline and death from the combined perspectives of language shift and script obsolescence, the project treats this period as an age of scribal creativity and innovation. These final centuries are characterized by an impulse to preserve classical ritual texts in more accessible formats and to compose new texts in innovative formats, including Greek translations. This project analyzes these shifts as resulting from changes in the function and location of Egyptian ritual and from interaction with Hellenistic culture.

Additional information: Homepage

Thomas Dodman

Eighteenth-Century Cultural History
Boston College

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8177    Email: tdodman@ias.edu

Project Title: When Emile went to war: emotions of a citizen-soldier

Research Abstract: My research project explores the life and military career of a "Rousseauian reader" during the French Revolutionary wars, based on his personal writings and the extensive correspondence he entertained with his adoptive mother and sister. These manuscript letters and diaries chart a "soldiers' tale" that reads like a novel and that breathes new life into the Revolution as it was experienced far from Paris, in its time of direst need. They bring into focus the aborted transformation of an "homme sensible" into a "citizen-soldier," and the psychological fashioning of a revolutionary self. Most of all, these unique sources provide access to the emotional labors of a highly educated, but otherwise quite ordinary young man at war, suggesting possibilities for an empirical study of affects and "family romances" during the French Revolution. This project thus seeks to probe the state of the field of the history of emotions, using a case study to examine the purchase of social theories of modern affects, of recent interest for the neuroscience, and of micro analysis at the time of increasingly "big" history.

Additional information: Homepage

Emine Fetvaci

Islamic Art, Ottoman Art
Boston University

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Email: fetvaci@ias.edu

Project Title: Album of Ahmed I: Cross-Cultural Collecting and the Art of Album Making in Seventeenth-Century Istanbul

Research Interest: Emine Fetvacı is writing a monograph on an early seventeenth century Ottoman album of paintings, drawings and calligraphies. Her book considers aesthetics and album-making in seventeenth-century Istanbul and examines relationships between court life and popular culture as well as Ottoman art and the art of Iran and Western Europe.

Ildar Garipzanov

Early Medieval History
University of Oslo

Member in residence for: First Term

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8363     Email: igaripzanov@ias.edu

 Project Title: Graphic Signs of Authority in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Research Abstract: Research on various graphic signs of authority that were employed in late antique and early medieval communication has been divided among a number of highly specialized academic disciplines. Some signs such as monograms originated from utilitarian abbreviation signs and as such have been of interest to numismatists, epigraphers and paleographers, who have traditionally described such graphic devices as a specific expression of late antique and early medieval literacy. Another strand of research on the graphic signs of authority has been conducted by art historians discussing the increasing use of visual media in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages. Yet for most of them, graphic signs have remained subordinate to representational figurative imagery. As a result, graphic signs of authority in these historical periods have conventionally been analyzed using methods specific to either literary production or figural art. By contrast, my research project approaches its graphic corpus as typologically similar forms of visual communication, which allows a synthetic study of graphic signs that have traditionally been studied as separate and unrelated phenomena – such as christograms and the sign of the cross on the one hand, and monograms and various monogrammatic forms on the other. Such an approach enables the coverage of graphic material on a wide range of media that have almost never been studied together (such as various mass-produced objects and unique objects of arts, architectural monuments and epigraphic inscriptions, and decorated manuscripts and charters). In the end, my research project aims to produce a cultural history of graphic signs relating to and “interacting” with the supernatural world as well as representing and communicating secular and divine authorities in the late antique Mediterranean and early medieval Europe from the fourth to ninth centuries. It will offer an alternative way of looking at the cultural, religious, and sociopolitical transition from the late Graeco-Roman world to medieval Europe through a narrative that will be driven by graphic visual material with reference to relevant historical contexts and texts.

Additional information: Homepage

Nina Glibetic

Byzantine Studies
Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Member in residence for: Year

While at IAS
Email: nglibetic@ias.edu

Project Title: Childbirth Ritual in Byzantium

Research Interest: Nina Glibetic is a historian of Christian ritual culture with an eye to the Eastern Mediterranean World. This year, she is investigating Byzantine and medieval Slavic ritual practices connected to childbirth in multiple source-types, including liturgical manuscripts and objects of visual and material culture.

Additional information: Homepage

Robert Goulding

History of Early Modern Optics
University of Notre Dame

Member in residence for: Year  

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8282     Email: rgoulding@ias.edu

Project Title: The Optics of Thomas Harriot, between Experiment and Imagination

Research Abstract: Thomas Harriot (1560-1621) was one of the great polymaths and scientists in England of his time, and probably the greatest English mathematician before Newton. He published little during his life; but modern scholars have slowly been making sense of some 8000 pages of private manuscript notes, covering all of his many interests. My research focuses on several hundred of these pages that have to do with optics, and seeks to put his optical work as a whole both within the context of his other interests, and the larger intellectual world that he inhabited. The two publications I have submitted reflect my approach to Harriot: one, which discusses his correspondence with Kepler about refraction in terms of Harriot's more fundamental interests in matter theory and alchemy; and the other, which puts Harriot's discovery of the sine-law of refraction (perhaps the only thing historians of science generally know about Harriot) in the context of English interests in giant burning instruments, long-standing theoretical problems about the refractive properties of lenses, the late sixteenth-century search for a refractive law, and some of Harriot's own mathematical interests. The book I will write during a fellowship year will continue this approach, providing an account of Harriot's scientific practice – experimental, theoretical, and speculative – through the objects (real or imagined) he used to explore optical phenomena.

Additional information: Homepage

Andrea Guidi

Military History, Machiavelli
Birkbeck, University of London 

Member in residence for: Second Term

Project Title: The Florentine Militia from Machiavelli to the Fall of the Republic (1506-1530)

Research Abstract: This research is a long term and comparative exploration of two experiments for a Florentine Renaissance militia: the one promoted and created by Niccolò Machiavelli (dating from 1506 to 1512) and the later one, called Ordinanza del contado (dating from 1527 to 1530); militias that were both established in order to defend the last popular governments (that interrupted the Medici rule in Florence) from external enemies through military conscription. The policies linked to the creation and uses of such infantry-militias reveal features that anticipate aspects of the so-called "military revolution" in early modern Europe. Especially the militia of 1527 has remained little studied, and the 1506 Machiavellian militia still deserves a study of its practical military organization. The project would not only contribute to a history of Renaissance and early modern armies, but also lead to a better understanding of a link between politics, finance, society and military institutions in Renaissance Florence.

Additional information: Homepage

Francesco Guizzi

Ancient History and Greek Epigraphy
Sapienza University of Rome

Member in residence for: Second Term 

Project Title: Water Supply and Hydraulic Infrastructures between central power and local administration in the Lycos' Valley under the Roman Empire (I-III century CE)

Research Abstract: This research project addresses the issue of the relationship between central power, provincial administration and civic communities in dealing with water supply in an area of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), precisely Lycus's Valley, close to the modern Turkish city of Denizli, distant from Smirne (Izmir) almost two hundred kilometers eastward. The choice of a “micro-regional” approach is justified by the relevant impact exerted by the archeological excavations on the historical studies about Hellenistic and Roman Imperial Age. Recent epigraphical discoveries allow to better understand issues concerning the above mentioned area, as well as the Greek-Roman East and Roman Empire in its entirety. In addition, some important inscriptions may shed fresh light on the topic covered by this research. Among these does an inscription unearthed in Laodicea in June 2015 stand out. It contains a proconsular edict, which is presumably to date at the last years of Trajan's reign (114-beginning of 116 CE), preserving thirty lines amounting to four thousand characters. This study will start with a detailed analysis of the texts coming from Hierapolis and Laodicea, the most important centers in the area. Particular attention will be paid to the above mentioned inscription. It will follow then a comparative examination of other sources, which are relevant to the water supply theme. In particular, emphasis will be given over 1) other epigraphic evidence, 2) legislation about the use of public funding and private use of water, transmitted in Justinian's Corpus Iuris (especially in the Digestus), 3) ancient texts about Roman hydraulic system, such as Vitruvius' On Architecture, and Frontinus' On the Water Supply of the City of Rome, and, finally, 4) the architectonic and urbanistic context in which epigraphic texts are placed.

Susanne Hakenbeck

Early Medieval Archaeology
University of Cambridge

Member in residence for: First Term 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8060     Email: shakenbeck@ias.edu

Project Title: The Danube in Late Antiquity

Research Abstract: My aim during my term at the IAS is to begin writing the first major interpretative archaeologically-driven history of the Danube in Late Antiquity. This book explores the role of Europe’s greatest river in the formation of new societies in central Europe, following the decline of the Roman Empire in the West. The Danube formed much of the northern boundary of the Roman Empire throughout its existence; yet since early prehistory it has also been a great axis of communication from east to west. Roman imperial strategy made use of major rivers like Danube and Rhine in the creation of its frontiers, but the populations along those rivers were united by a common experience of life in the frontier zones, as much as they may have been divided by political super-structures. In the centuries leading up to the withdrawal of the Roman empire, these frontier zones saw intense interactions both along the course of the Danube and across it. The river was used for fishing and hunting, trade and population movements. Following the end of the centralised, hegemonic power of the empire, the Danube became a means for the rapid communication of people and ideas.  It facilitated the emergence of new forms of political legitimisation but also of widely shared burial practices and settlement forms, among populations that could be as far apart as southern Germany and Transylvania. Historical accounts of the events surrounding the fall of the Roman Empire take as starting point the written sources of the time - texts that were written by male, urban clerics or high-level imperial administrators, brought up in the educational traditions of the late Roman Empire, few of whom had ever visited the Danube region themselves. The narrative is thus fundamentally biased towards the specific perspectives of the authors of these texts. In contrast my book will focus on the lived experiences and material world of the local people. This archaeological exploration will give a voice to the people that have only been written about, who have not passed their own narratives down to us, and yet who forged the world of the Danube as it emerged from antiquity on trajectories that remain relevant today.

Additional information: Homepage

Jane Hathaway

Ottoman History
Ohio State University

Member in residence for: First Term

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8302    Email: jhathaway@ias.edu

Project Title: The Chief Eunuch of the Ottoman Imperial Harem from the Origins of the Office to the Beginnings of Westernizing Reform

Research Interest: Jane Hathaway is completing a book on the Chief Eunuch of the Ottoman imperial harem from the origins of the office in the late 16th century through the beginnings of westernizing reform in the late 18th century, with an epilogue following the story to the end of the Ottoman Empire.

Elisabeth Kaske

Late Imperial China
Carnegie Mellon University 

Member in residence for: Year  

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8165    Email: ekaske@ias.edu

Project Title: The Political Economy of Office Selling in Late Imperial China

Research Abstract: My book project explores how the late Qing government used the legal sale of rank and office to balance powers between the central government, provincial leaders and local elites. It will challenge two commonly held views in Chinese historiography about the gradual decline of the Qing empire following the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864): firstly, that the influence of local elites increased at the expense of local government and, secondly, that the power of the provincial leaders grew to the detriment of the central government. In contrast, I show that the Qing was able to successfully employ the sale of rank and office not only to obtain much needed revenue, but also to restore the balance of power by playing off local elites against provincial power centers, while strengthening its own role. It was thus able to prevent the devolution of power, while perpetuating a decentralized system of government. The imperial government only started to undermine its own success when it began to sever its beneficial relationship with local elites at the same time that it tried to increase central control over provincial and local finances under the influence of Western ideas of national government. In Princeton, I plan to work on two final chapters of my study which will explore how changing ideas about governance gradually undermined the efficacy of the system of rank and office selling. First, I will examine the changing nature of government-led famine relief to show how the imperial government found itself in open competition with non-state activist for empire-wide influence. Secondly, I will explore the little studied growth and modernization of the extra-statutory bureaucracy as it was facilitated by the practice of office selling. I will ask the question whether it was the split of the literati class into purchasers vs. examination graduates within the extra-statutory bureaucracy itself or the bureaucracy's inability to absorb the great number of men of eligible official status – purchased or not – that created the discontented group of men who joined the anti-Qing movement.

Additional information: Homepage

Christos Kremmydas

Classics, Attic Oratory
Royal Holloway, University of London

Member in residence for: Second Term 

Project Title: Detecting verbal deception in the speeches of Demosthenes and Aeschines On the Embassy

Research Interest: Christos Kremmydas’ main research interests are in Ancient Greek oratory and rhetoric, law and historiography. At IAS, he plans to work on his new book which sheds light on strategies of rhetorical deception in Attic forensic oratory and explores the possibility of detecting verbal deception using ancient and modern diagnostic tools.

Additional information: Homepage

Yu-chih Lai

Chinese Art History and Visual Culture
Academia Sinica, Taiwan

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8160    Email: yclai@ias.edu

Project Title: Visual Governance: Cataloguing People, Birds, and Animals at the Qianlong Court

Research Abstract: This book project intends to explore how the unprecedented production of various kinds of images at the High Qing court of the 18th century represented a form of imperial governance featuring a distinctive "Manchu Way," a term coined by New Qing historians, yet also was shaped by contemporary forms of globalization. These images range from documenting important imperial rituals (processions, events, tours, foreign tributes) to cataloguing the emperor's subjects, art collections, knowledge of the ancient and the new, and others. Facing this wide range of productions, my research focuses specifically on encyclopedic works of image-compilation embarked upon by the Qianlong emperor: Official Tributes (Zhigong tu), Album of Birds (Niao pu), and Album of Beasts (Shou pu). All three compilations were initiated and completed around the same time (1750 and 1761 respectively) and also shared the same size and format, i.e., pairing images and texts on two sides of leaves. They contain a considerable amount of reworked styles, images, and even translated texts from Europe. Most importantly, an entire bureaucratic network was mobilized by the heart of political power at the time, the Grand Council (Junji chu), so as to collect first-hand materials and produce images numbering in the thousands. As such, they were highly important productions for both the court and the entire imperium. By focusing on the following questions: Why did the Qianlong emperor initiate this series of pictorial productions? How do these works compare to compilations undertaken in previous dynasties? Where and how were these images viewed, and what was their overall reception? Most importantly, how did Western elements and manifestations of empiricism in these compilations both reflect yet also shape the agendas of the Qianlong emperor and his court? This project will explore the relationships between images and governance at the Manchu court, and the ways in which these links played into the Qianlong emperor's vision of "world" and “empire" in dialogue with the traditional rhetoric of Chinese politics.

Klaus Larres

History of International Relations
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Member in residence for: Year  

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8316     Email: larres@ias.edu

Project Title: Managing Germany and America’s Emerging Global Rivalry: China and Russia as Causes of Transatlantic Friction

Research Interest: At IAS, Klaus Larres is focusing on the contemporary policies of the United States and Germany toward China and Russia in a transatlantic context. Berlin and Washington have very different ideas about how to manage the rise of a globally ambitious China and deal with Putin's Russia. At times, this has led to a great deal of friction in transatlantic relations.

Additional information: Homepage   CV

Christian Lentz 

History of Modern Southeast Asia
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Member in residence for: Second Term

Project Title: Bounded Revolutions: Dien Bien Phu and the Making of Northwest Vietnam

Research Abstract: My book Bounded Revolutions is a historical geography of a small place with global significance. It analyzes how local peoples in the mountain town and battleground of Dien Bien Phu both enabled Vietnam’s revolution and demonstrated its limits. In the place where Vietnam toppled French Indochina in 1954, frontier folk not only produced a national state but also challenged its underlying boundaries. Marginalized as “backward ethnic minorities,” the same peoples carried the burdens of armed struggle and bore its scars. Turning socialist logics back against the new Vietnamese state, dissidents protested local elites’ continued grip on land and office. Although they had helped extend Vietnam’s territory west to Laos and north to China, their vision of self-rule crossed interstate borders and mapped old social topographies. Their movement, crushed by Vietnam’s security forces, threw the nation-state’s ruling assumptions into sharp relief.

Additional information: CV

Rebecca Maloy

Medieval Music
University of Colorado Boulder 

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8114     Email: rmaloy@ias.edu

Project Title: Sung in Honor of Sacrifice: Text, Melody, and Exegesis in the Iberian Offertory

Research Abstract: Medieval Christian worship on the Iberian Peninsula was structured by the rich rituals and music of the Old Hispanic rite. Although the Old Hispanic chant is believed to be among the earliest extant repertories of western music, musicologists have yet to engage fully with it. This book is the first devoted to a single genre of Old Hispanic chant: the offertory or sacrificium. Its aim is to situate a medieval plainsong repertory within its intellectual culture and the history of ideas. Examining their texts in the light of contemporaneous biblical exegesis, I argue that the sacrificia are a form of biblical commentary, following allegorical interpretations of the Old Testament that were well established on the Iberian Peninsula. Their creators, moreover, used melody to shape textual syntax, enhance musical rhetoric, and underline images of allegorical importance. I thus show how these melodies directed the devotional ruminations of educated liturgical participants. The sacrificia also present new evidence about the oral transmission of plainchant, providing a direct testimony to the kinds of variant practices that have been more speculatively proposed for Franco-Roman ("Gregorian") chant. This book establishes a new basis for assessing the relationship between the different western traditions of liturgical chant, yielding new evidence for the kinds of cultural exchange made possible through the liturgy. By placing this repertory within the religious and intellectual history of Visigothic Spain, the project reveals rich intersections between religious belief, intellectual life, and the arts.

Additional information: Homepage

Federico Marcon

History of Early Modern Japan
Princeton University

Member in residence for: Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8355    Email: fmarcon@ias.edu

Project Title: Money Talks: A Social History of Money in Early Modern Japan”

Research Abstract: A residency at the I.A.S. would constitute the ideal intellectual environment to bring to fruition my project of a book manuscript on the socio-intellectual history of money in early modern Japan. No survey on the monetary history of Tokugawa Japan exists in English or any other Western language. As far as I know, no monograph on the social meanings of money in pre-1868 Japan exists in any language. "Money Talks" has the ambition to fill these gaps. It has three fundamental goals. First, by reconstructing how the complex trimetallic currency system engineered by the Tokugawa sustained the impressive economic, technological, and cultural growth of the period, it aims to make money "talk" about the ways in which it structured social relations between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Second, by interpreting the various philosophical, political, and popular discourses on money, it plans to recover how money was understood by various social agents and how the logic of fungibility that constitutes the essential function of money translated into other forms of thought and knowledge. Finally, I nourish the hope that this research on Tokugawa money will contribute to the debate on the nature of money in general. The faculty of the School of Historical Studies of I.A.S. would offer an invaluable contribution to give comparative breath and theoretical precision to the project.

Rudolph Matthee

Early Modern Iran
University of Delaware

Member in residence for: Second Term

Project Title: Between Decay and Regeneration: The Eighteenth Century in Iranian History and Historiography

Research Interest: This book project, prefigured in five published articles, aims to make a contribution to the study of the historical formation of an Iranian sense of self. His book project will connect the Safavid period with the Qajar era across the “missing” 18th century and probe the ways in which Iranians—both persophone elites and the subaltern who rarely speaks— since Safavid times have engaged with the world around them.

Additional information: Homepage

Fabien Montcher

Intellectual and Political History
Saint Louis University

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Email: fmontcher@ias.edu

Project Title: Scholarship and the Making of Politics in Early Modern Empires: The Iberian Routes of the Republic of Letters

Research Interest: My work explores how scholarship contributed to the foundations of modern state politics between the late Renaissance and the Enlightenment. As a social historian of ideas, I seek to understand how Iberian communities of knowledge, from both the Spanish and the Portuguese empires, fostered political communication among different state information systems.

Additional information: Homepage

Giuliano Mori

Early Modern Intellectual History
Institute for Advanced Study

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone:: 609-734-8333     Email: gmori@ias.edu

Project Title: History ’Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam’: Platonists, Missionaries, and the Seventeenth-Century Jesuit Project for a Universal History

Research Interest: Giuliano Mori is enquiring in the role played by the tradition of ancient theology in the seventeenth-century Jesuit environment as a means to formulate new historiographical paradigms, aimed at incorporating idolatrous peoples in the Catholic oecumene. He is also interested in how this changed the seventeenth-century notion of error and falsehood.

Ohad Nachtomy

History of Philosophy and Science
Bar-Ilan University

Member in residence for: Second Term 

Project Title: Living Mirrors: Infinity, Unity, and Life in Leibniz's Philosophy

Research Abstract: The  aim  of  this  project  is  to  complete  a  monograph  entitled  Living  Mirrors: Infinity, Unity, and Life in Leibniz’s Philosophy. This work presents Leibniz’s view of infinity and the role it plays in his theory of living beings. While the importance of Leibniz’s work on infinity is recognized, no single monograph clarifies his diverse use of infinity and the way it is employed in his view of living beings. That Leibniz’s theory of living things is marked by his use of infinity has been noted by Smith (2011) and Nachtomy (2014). But the details of this complex story remain to be worked out. The first chapter presents some historical background through Leibniz’s encounters with Hobbes, Descartes, Pascal, and Galileo. The second chapter presents a tension that preoccupied Leibniz during his years in Paris (1672-76) between the notion of an infinite number and that of an infinite being. According to Leibniz, an infinite number is a contradictory notion, and thus he regards it as impossible. But if this is so, how could the notion of an infinite being avoid the contradiction that inflicts the notion of infinite number? The third chapter argues that Leibniz develops a solution to this question through his encounter with Spinoza (in his annotations on Eps. 12 and his conversations with Tchirnhaus) by distinguishing between a quantitative and a non-quantitative use of infinity. Leibniz’s comments on Spinoza also reveal an intermediate degree of infinity – a maximum in its kind. I argue that Leibniz is using this degree of infinity as a defining feature of living beings. The fourth chapter presents Leibniz’s development regarding the connection between infinity and life, arguing that, in the New System of Nature (1695), Leibniz begins to define living beings by means of the infinite nested structure typical of natural machines. The fifth chapter explores this distinction. The sixth chapter explores Leibniz’s use of infinity to define living beings through his image of a living mirror, contrasting it with Pascal’s image of a mite. The final chapter explores Leibniz’s attempt to re-enchant nature by using the notion of life as the grounds of being.

Additional information: Homepage  CV

Patrick O'Banion

Religious Life in Early Modern Spain
Lindenwood University 

Member in residence for: Second Term  

Project Title: Deza and Its Moriscos: Faith and Community in Early Modern Europe

Research Abstract: This study of the Castilian town of Deza combines religious and social history to explore the relationship between Christian and Muslim groups in early modern Spain. Spanish Moriscos (i.e., baptized Muslims and their descendants) underwent a coerced conversion to Christianity early in the sixteenth century, but doubts about the sincerity of their conversion among other members of the population spawned a forced expulsion a century later. Historians have traditionally depicted Moriscos as a homogeneous group, disempowered and passive before authority. Deza, however, provides a striking counter-example, for its Moriscos wielded remarkable social, economic, and political power. They allied with powerful nobles against the town's Old Christians (i.e., those without Jewish or Muslim blood), negotiated directly with the Royal Council, controlled half the seats on the town council, and successfully navigated the court system to safeguard hard won privileges. While some of Deza's Moriscos gravitated toward Christianity or Islam, others vacillated; some were poor and lacked social standing, but others amassed wealth or became local power brokers. Rather than a passive and monolithic minority, the town's Moriscos proved to be variegated and active, challenging the assumptions imposed upon them by contemporaries and, later, by historians. Using extensive archival sources as well as early modern printed works, this book project explores both the internal conflicts within Deza and the external pressures brought to bear upon it by the Inquisition, episcopacy, and crown thus emphasizing the importance of local context in assessing the possibilities and limitations of negotiated communal life at the dawn of modernity.

Additional information: Homepage  CV

Klaus Oschema

Late Medieval Culture and Society
Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8357    Email: kposchema@ias.edu

Project Title: Orientation from the stars – late medieval astrologers and the creation of an expert culture

Research Abstract: My research project analyzes late medieval astrologers as protagonists of a nascent “expert culture”. Developing recent research trends, that mainly focus on either the history of science, the controversies about the legitimacy of astrology, or the use of astrology in political contexts, I interpret the astrologers' position in several social contexts as that of “experts”. Drawing on an elaborate body of knowledge and skills that combine empirical observation, mathematical calculations, and rules of interpretation from an elaborate tradition, many of the numerous astrologers operated in practical contexts outside of academia: seen from a certain perspective, one might argue that they gave the most qualified advice on future events that was available with contemporary means. My main interest concerns the performative and argumentative strategies late medieval astrologers developed in order to establish and keep their status as experts on an individual as well as on a collective level. Relevant information can be found in polemical treatises (which furnish the perspective of the adversaries), in historiographical material, but also in the widespread genre of the "judicia anni," annual prognostications that appear in growing number from the late 14th century onwards but that have hitherto largely been neglected by modern researchers. A large number of these texts begin with a short defense of astrological practice that explains its theoretical basis and argues for its effectiveness as well as it legitimacy. Drawing on this body of source material, I seek to demonstrate not only the persistent interest of late medieval men and women in their (secular) future, but also the specific rationality that characterized their consultation of astrologers. In addition, I want to underline the importance of social performance for the successful establishment as an expert, thereby complementing the usual emphasis of knowledge and skill. The results of my work will not only widen and refine our picture of late medieval “knowledge cultures”, but will also provide material for fruitful comparison with modern “expert cultures”.

Additional information: Homepage  CV

Anastasios (Tom) Papademetriou

Ottoman History
Stockton University

Member in residence for: Second Term 

Project Title: The Orthodox Church in the Ottoman Empire: Ottoman Conquests and Ecclesiastical Consolidation

Research Abstract: This project investigates the Patriarchate of Constantinople's transformation from a weak ecclesiastical institution at the end of the sixteenth century to an authoritative force of the Greek community by the end of the eighteenth century. Building on research for my monograph, Render Unto the Sultan: Power, Authority and the Greek Orthodox Church in the Early Ottoman Centuries (Oxford University Press, 2015), I continue to challenge the Ottoman "millet system" thesis, the historical model in which non-Muslim (zimmi) religious leaders were the civil and religious authority. Abundant examples from the Ottoman archives show the Patriarch to be more of a tax farmer (mültezim) for the ecclesiastical tax farm than community leader. By the mid-eighteenth century, however, the situation changed. The Ottoman Sultan even addressed the Patriarch as political potentate of the Rum millet, who possessed a range of civil authority including control of a gendarmerie, and representing the community to the Ottoman state. How did the Patriarchate of Constantinople transition from such a weak ecclesiastical authority to a powerful civil and religious authority of the Rum millet? This consolidation and absorption took place over the course of three long centuries, beginning with Ottoman imperial expansion, and military conquest. This project will focus on the Ottoman conquests of Cyprus in 1571, and Crete in 1669 to consider how the Church began to think about its expanded ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Combining use of Greek, and Ottoman Turkish sources as well as other available European sources, I seek to examine the non-Muslim confessional community within its larger historical context. I wish to consider the extent to which minority populations and their institutions reflect the wider society in which they live, and question to what extent they are isolated from that wider society.

Additional information: Homepage

Fabian Reiter

Ancient History, Papyrology
Universität Trier

Member in residence for: First Term

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8359    Email: freiter@ias.edu

Project Title: New Ptolemaic and Roman Ostraca from Tebtynis

Research Abstract: My project aims at the first edition of about 450 Greek ostraca from the Egyptian village of Tebtynis, which were excavated in the years 1997-2003. Even though most of the pieces contain short and often enigmatic texts, their study is very rewarding since we know in most cases their exact finding spots, which are often helpful for the interpretation. The most interesting are two groups of ostraca found almost exclusively in the buildings called deipneteria, which were situated along the dromos of the village and served for assemblies of associations. One group consists of about 100 ostraca with notices mentioning a person, an amount of beer, and a date; in view of their provenance, I interpret them as acknowledgments of beer contributions made by members to sessions of the association. The other group consists of about 50 ostraca mentioning in a most laconic way offices such as klisiarches, synagogos, hegoumenos or prostates, sometimes accompanied by dates and amounts of money. Also these notices are apparently connected with assemblies, and I tentatively consider them as tickets for special seats in festivities of associations. Besides these exciting types of documents, there are more heterogeneous groups of accounts, receipts, notices with names or amounts of commodities, and writing exercises which have come to light in rubbish heaps and other spots. As I have already transcribed them and gathered relevant data in a database, I would now like to write the introductions and commentaries, and conclude the work by putting the results of the study into their cultural context. The edition of these historical sources will considerably enrich our knowledge of different aspects of Greco-Roman Egypt. As access to a very well equipped and interdisciplinary library is of paramount importance for completing the studies, the IAS will offer the ideal facilities and conditions for finishing this project in the course of the fellowship.

Additional information: Homepage   CV

Frank Rexroth

Medieval Intellectual History
University of Göttingen

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8347    Email: frexroth@ias.edu

Project Title: Scholars in Groups: Truth, Emotions and the Emergence of the Academic Field, ca. 1100-1250

Research Abstract: My project aims at a new interpretation of the emergence of a self-referential academic field during the beginning of the twelfth and the mid-thirteenth century. My working hypothesis is that a) the emergence of the new type of “free” school managed by individual, entrepreneurial teachers led to a new scholarly episteme around “veritas” as its communicative centre; and b) this process required a reconfiguration of the school as a social group, including significant changes in the emotional regimes which organize and perpetuate these schools. At the “free” schools of twelfth-century masters, notions of life-long fidelity between student and teacher, which had been (and still were) characteristic for both monastic and cathedral schools of the earlier middle ages, were to be transformed into a more fluid, ephemeral entity that favoured a new, “scholastic” concept of truth. The basic element of my study will be a history of scholarly interaction, starting – after a preliminary sketch of the situation at monastic and cathedral schools – with the entry of Peter Abelard into the schools of Roscelin, William of Champeaux and Anselm of Laon. Then I will deal with the situation during the second half of the twelfth century, when the existence of the “new” kind of school was gradually taken for granted by the non-scholastic environment. The last stage will be the emergence of the university and its subdivision into distinct faculties. This process came to an end in the mid-thirteenth century. Though the focus on schools as social groups provides an analytical starting point for my book project, I aim at a synthesis of the intellectual history of the twelfth and early thirteenth centuries that nevertheless serves the needs of a “histoire-problème”. My study will combine the social history of the school both with an investigation of the emotional history of schools and with studies in the episteme of early scholasticism.

Additional information: Homepage

Priscilla Roberts

History of International Relations
University of Hong Kong

Member in residence for: First Term

While at IAS
Phone: 609 951-4566    Email: proberts@ias.edu

Project Title: International Affairs Think Tanks: The First Century

Research Abstract: During this fellowship, I plan to produce a volume of case studies focusing on the role and influence of twentieth-century foreign policy think tanks in the conduct of international affairs from the 1920s to the 1980s. The book will focus on just how such organizations have functioned since World War I, not just singly but in terms of constituting elite transnational intellectual networks that have played significant and changing roles in setting the agenda for and conducting international affairs. It is intended to illuminate how these organizations contributed to the making of policy, the links between official and unofficial diplomacy, and the changing role and nature of foreign policy think tanks over this period. This work will also be an important contribution to a major international, interdisciplinary initiative on the role of foreign policy think tanks and associated non-governmental or quasi-non-governmental organizations and elite groups in international affairs, a team of which I am one of the founding members. With the centenaries of several leading foreign policy think tanks approaching in the next few years, this initiative seeks to provide a nuanced assessment and overview of their significance in the making of 20th and early 21st century foreign policy and suggest what their potential future may be.

Nicolaas Rupke

History of Biology
Washington and Lee University

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8317     Email: nrupke@ias.edu

Project Title: The non-Darwinian Tradition in Evolutionary Theory, 1800-Present

Research Abstract: The history of the theory of organic evolution has largely been written by Darwinians – by Darwin himself, who provided an historiographical template with his  “Historical  sketch”,  added  to  the  3rd  edition  of  the  Origin of Species, and by Darwin’s followers, perhaps most magisterially by Ernst Mayr with his The Growth of Biological Thought. I shall look at the “Darwin industry” but then additionally explore a revisionist history that incorporates the non-Darwinian approach to the origin of life and species which by and large has been expunged from the historical record. I shall look at the scientific facts, the different theories and raise the question “Where were these theories situated?” “What socio-political purposes and religious connotations did they have?” In thus bringing the “geography of knowledge” to bear on the history of evolutionary biology, it will become apparent that England has been the heartland of the Darwinian / functionalist approach, while the German-speaking world was the fountainhead of what can be termed the formalist or structuralist understanding of evolution. At length and in detail, I intend to show how the politics of location influenced the reading of nature. The non-Darwinian tradition, which centers on the phenomenon of the mathematical describability of nature, including organic nature, has featured / features such great names of science as Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, Carl Gustav Carus, Alexander von Humboldt, Richard Owen, St. George Jackson Mivart, D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Teilhard de Chardin, Otto Heinrich Schindewolf, Erwin Schroedinger, Stephen J. Gould (but Gould sat on the fence), Simon Conway Morris, and, I’d argue, Stuart Kauffman.

Additional information: CV

Daniel Sherman

Art History and Modern French Cultural History
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Member in residence for: First Term

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8315    Email: djsherman@ias.edu

Project Title: Sensations: French Archaeology Between Science and Spectacle, 1890-1930

Research Abstract: Drawing on extensive research in public and private archives and in a wide range of visual materials, my project probes the intertwined histories of archaeology and French culture in the early twentieth century. It focuses on two controversies, over excavations at Carthage in the French Protectorate of Tunisia and about the authenticity of a supposed Neolithic site discovered in central France, both of which crystallized in the mid-1920s, as constitutive of a field suspended between scientific ambitions and media attention. The study brings together two sub-fields normally treated separately, classical archaeology and prehistory, and employs close visual and textual analysis to offer a new ground-level view of the formation of archaeology as at once discipline and spectacle. I ask basic questions about the constitution of the archive and disciplines' understandings of their own past that allow for reflection across history, my own field of study, and archaeology, the object of study. The visual representation and display of archaeological finds as well as of archaeology itself receive particular emphasis as a connecting thread between discipline-formation and spectacle.

Additional information: Homepage

Nancy Sinkoff

Jewish History
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609 951-4612    Email: nsinkoff@ias.edu

Project Title: From Left to Right: Lucy S. Dawidowicz, the New York Intellectuals, and the Politics of Jewish History

Research Abstract: My project is the first biography of Lucy S. Dawidowicz (1915-1990), a central figure in the construction of Holocaust consciousness and in shaping academic and public discourse about Jewish politics and identity in postwar America. Born into the East European Jewish immigrant milieu of interwar New York City, Dawidowicz's life and intellectual concerns paralleled those of the famous male "New York Intellectuals", including Irving Kristol, Norman Podhoretz, and Daniel Bell, who journeyed from youthful communism, through liberalism, and, in some cases, to neoconservatism. Dawidowicz was exceptional because she brought a transnational perspective on Jewish existence – born of her fateful encounters with European antisemitism and European Jewish civilization before and immediately after World War II – to the public culture of postwar America. Her experience with Polish antisemitism, work with Jewish refugees in postwar occupied Germany, and contact with individuals who had fled the Soviet Union shaped her political evolution "From Left to Right." Dawidowicz's work intersected with the key events, issues, and personalities of the twentieth century, such as the viability of secularism, the singularity and universality of Holocaust, the construction of Cold War liberalism, and the neoconservative response to the New Left and the militant civil rights movement. With her pathbreaking The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945 (1975), Dawidowicz became an intellectual touchstone for many of the "New York Intellectuals" who "discovered" their Jewishness in the postwar years as part of a general ethnic awakening and in response to the Holocaust. In her books and articles for the Commentary magazine at the height of its influence, Dawidowicz addressed the fundamental post-Holocaust question: could Jews be secure in the Diaspora? In dialogue with the major figures of the transnational Jewish intelligentsia, and given the pivotal role played by Jewish American intellectuals in the postwar years, she had a profound influence on American culture.

Additional information: Homepage   CV

Columba Stewart

Early Medieval History
Saint John's University

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8356    Email: cstewart@ias.edu

Project Title: A New History of the First Millennium of Christian Monasticism

Research Abstract: I plan to complete an overview of the first millennium of Christian monasticism.  Monasticism has historically been one of the defining features of Christianity across many cultures, eastern and western. Monasteries quickly became the primary source of ecclesiastical leadership; their libraries the guardians of literary and artistic culture; and their monks the bearers of Christian cultural identity to distant populations. Throughout the Middle Ages, monasticism provided the dominant Christian spiritual paradigm in western Europe. In the eastern churches it continues to do so. Traditional western histories of monasticism have tended to draw an undisturbed arc of development from Anthony the Great in Egypt to the Benedictine monasticism of the Middle Ages, presenting a romanticizing view of piety, learning, and artistic achievement. During the last 35 years there has been a dramatic reimagining of the origins and development of Christian monasticism. Despite this array of new approaches and provocative research, there is no comprehensive overview of the ascetic and monastic movements of the Christian east and west during their first millennium that fully integrates recent methodologies and perspectives. In order to fill that gap, my book will survey this complex terrain for those seeking an overview of Christian asceticism and monasticism as well as an orientation to recent scholarship. The intended audience extends from the educated general reader to students and scholars of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The narrative tracks deep continuities and developmental trajectories in the history of monasticism while paying heed to the numerous disruptions often effaced in the traditional surveys of monastic history. The resulting story strays far from the usual view of monasticism as a phenomenon arising in third-century Egypt and spreading across the Christian world through key writings and the fame of "founding" figures such as Anthony or Benedict. Instead, the book characterizes what we call "monasticism" as a particular expression of the broad and deep current of Christian asceticism found in every region and culture of the early Christian world.

Additional information: Homepage

Antonio Stramaglia

Classical Philology
Università di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale

Member in residence for: First Term

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8304    Email: astramaglia@ias.edu

Project Title: Apuleius of Madauros. The remains of the lost works (Operum deperditorum reliquiae)

Research Abstract: Apuleius (II cent. CE) of Madauros in modern Algeria is nowadays best known for his brilliant self-defense in a capital trial (Apologia) and for his multi-faceted novel (Metamorphoses or The Golden Ass); but he lectured and wrote on a wide range of subjects in various genres, in both Latin and Greek. While his few surviving works are well served by modern scholarship, this is far from true of the rest of his once wide production. Beaujeu's standard edition (1973) contains fewer than 30 fragments; Harrison's survey (2000) is more complete, listing 19 (groups of) Apuleian lost works, each documented by testimonia or quotations. But these figures are far below the available evidence: at least 80 scattered items can today be attributed with reasonable certainty to the “lost Apuleius”. It is my aim to give the first systematic arrangement and comprehensive critical edition of these remarkable materials, including not only Latin and Greek, but also a number of Syriac sources, to be presented in a new Latin translation (by A. Corcella). It is mostly difficult or impossible to identify the “actual words” of the author (or even to know whether they were originally in Latin or Greek), and such a procedure is itself open to debate. My edition – accepted for publication by OUP, Oxford Classical Texts – will make no distinction between testimonia and fragments, but will adopt a single consecutive numeration for the various “remains” (Reliquiae) of Apuleius' lost works. Every entry will be equipped with two apparatuses: one of sources, parallel passages et sim., the other a conventional apparatus criticus, selective but meticulous. For works such as the Greek Geoponica, which supply a large number of Apuleian quotations but still lack a reliable critical apparatus, personal inspection of relevant manuscripts is envisaged. A general introduction (in Latin) will give a full overview of the contents and salient features of Apuleius' lost works, as well as a reconstruction – as far as possible – of the paths of textual transmission involved in the loss of most of those writings and in the preservation of their surviving portions.

Additional information: CV

Cameron Strang

History of Science in North America
University of Nevada, Reno

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8007    Email: cstrang@ias.edu

Project Title: Indian Explorers: The Other Face of Knowledge and Power in North America

Research Abstract: Native American explorers developed new knowledge about North America through their own observations and through exchanges with diverse informants, and the ways in which they described the continent both informed and challenged the migrations of a wide variety of white, black, and Native Americans. I argue that historians have only examined half of the story of exploration and empire, the half that encouraged European and U.S. imperialism. But imperial expansion – in America and throughout the world – also inspired native peoples to undertake knowledge-generating explorations of their own as a creative response to new challenges, threats, and opportunities. Recovering this history is a major step toward demonstrating that Indians were important actors in what many Americans consider the central story of national science and society: the exploration and peopling of the continent.

Additional information: Homepage

Despina Stratigakos

German and Norwegian Architecture
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

Member in residence for: Year 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8338    Email: despina@ias.edu

Project Title: Hitler's Northern Dream: Building an Empire in Occupied Norway

Research Interest: Despina Stratigakos explores the intersections of architecture and power. Her current project investigates the vast construction schemes undertaken in Norway following Germany’s invasion in 1940, and what they reveal about the National Socialist vision of colonial territories in the postwar world Adolf Hitler imagined.

Additional information: Homepage

Mark Tauger

Soviet Agriculture
West Virginia University

Member in residence for: Year 

Research Interest: My study examines famines and agricultural sciences in Russia and the USSR. It surveys the history of famines and famine relief from early Russian history to the 20th century, the responses of Russian and Soviet agricultural specialists to famine, and the emergence of a Soviet Green Revolution in the 1950s.

Additional information: Homepage

Roberto Tottoli

Early Islam, Islamic Literature
Università degli Studi di Napoli L'Orientale

Member in residence for: Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8346    Email: rtottoli@ias.edu

Project Title: Editing and printing the Qur'an in Western Modern Europe and the Islamic world

Research Abstract: The research aims to analyze the history of the editing and printing of the Qur'an, and to produce a monograph on the topic. It will deal with the known European editions ranging from the Paganini Venice edition of the beginning of the 16th century to the edition by G. Flügel in the 19th, focusing on the new material recently discovered by myself. This consists of the fifteen personal manuscripts of Ludovico Marracci (d. 1700), and the manuscript by Johann Zechendorff (d. 1662) including the complete Qur'an with an interlinear translation into Latin. The research will discuss the questions arising from all these editions and works, namely investigating the Islamic sources editors and translators had at their disposal and used, and the problems they faced in establishing the Arabic text of the Qur'an and then in translating it. Further, to complete the bibliographical history of the printed Qur'an, the history of the Muslim editions of the Qur'an will also be taken into consideration, highlighting the problems and questions also emerging from the first printed Qur'ans of the end of the 18th century and on into the 20th century, preceding and following the 1924 Cairo edition.

Additional information: Homepage

Matthew Waters

Achaemenid Persia/Ancient Near East
University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire

Member in residence for: Second Term

 Project Title: Cyrus' Universal Empire

Research Abstract: There are two monograph projects for which I am applying for an IAS fellowship, each intersecting the establishment of the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great (r. 559-530 BCE). Project 1 focuses on Cyrus as a foundational figure in both Near Eastern and Western history and contextualizes the varied Greek and biblical evidence for Cyrus with the burgeoning data available from cuneiform sources. Primary focus is the consideration of Cyrus' Babylonian inscriptions (Cyrus Cylinder, stamp inscriptions from Uruk and Ur) in conjunction with the rapid advances via recent publications in Babylonian social and institutional history. Project 2 is a monograph-length examination of Achaemenid royal ideology that places it in the longue dur'ee with full consideration of Elamite, Babylonian, and Assyrian antecedents, with continuity all the way back to the Dynasty of Akkad's kings ca. 2300 BCE.

Additional information: Homepage   CV

Thomas Weber-Karyotakis

Classical Archaeology, Greco-Roman Sculpture in the Middle East
The University of Jordan

Member in residence for: Second Term

Project Title: The Greco-Roman Metal Sculpture of Bilad al-Sham and the Arabian Peninsula: Art History and Technology

Research Abstract: The project deals with metal sculpture (gold, silver, copper-alloy [bronze], iron, lead) of the Greco-Roman period (6th century BC to 7th century AD) from the Orient (Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Mesopotamia including the Arabias). It focuses on two Corpora of monuments: 1. ca. 9200 metal sculptures in the round preserved in public and private collections in the Near East, Europe, and America; 2. Material excavated in a Roman metal casting installation in the Zeus sanctuary at Jerash, Jordan. It is the aim to concentrate this vast material in chronological, thematic, and regional groups and to investigate it in comparison with imported sculpture out of marble and products of local manufacture of indigenous rocks (limestone, basalt). For the historic context and background, relevant literary and epigraphic sources have been assembled in a database. The discussion of these sculptures from the Levant and its hinterlands will lead to a clear diachronic history and geographic distribution of metal sculpture within the Greco-Semitic cultural landscape. It will help to develop new criteria for the evaluation of the metal sculpture in Arabia Felix during the earlier Himiyar empire (1st century BC to 3rd century AD) and its relation to the Hellenized societies in Jewish Palestine and Nabataean Arabia. Cooperation has been agreed with French, Jordanian, and Saudi specialists in this field of research. Emphasis will be laid on the metal technology by exploring the excavated material in Jerash. This will be related to other oriental metal workshops as known at Petra, Beisan, Tel Dor, and Beirut.

Xin Yu

Medieval Chinese History
Fudan University

Member in residence for: Year

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8162    Email: xinyu@ias.edu

Project Title: Knowledge, Treasure, and Magic along the Silk Road

Research Abstract: Hosts of ancient manuscripts and cultural relics unearthed at Silk Road sites, largely in northwest China, have provided new information and inspired new disciplinary perspectives on medieval Chinese history. Over the past century the new data has transformed scholarly understanding of cultural exchanges between East and West, the history of religion, and the development of material culture in medieval China and greater East Asia. However, studies engaging with the broader picture and overall meaning are still largely absent. The proposed research uses four case studies, each involving a close reading of crucial yet underappreciated materials, to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the place of different kinds of text in the production and transmission of classical knowledge and the practice of magic and religion. The sources include standard historical sources in transmitted and manuscript form, archaeological evidence, bamboo slips and silk texts, manuscripts unearthed at Dunhuang (Gansu province) and Turfan (Xin-jiang province), lost Chinese books preserved in Japan, and literature on Sino-foreign relations. Much of my work is concerned with the Silk Road, conceived as a network through which many cultures interacted. My broader concerns are the relationship between different belief systems (Confucianism, Buddhism, Daoism, popular religion), the activity of manuscript copying, the practice of ritual, and the place of manuscript culture and visual culture in intellectual history, folk belief, and daily life. The proposed project, based in part on recent lectures and graduate courses offered in Europe and China, develops further my earlier work on historical memory, concepts of life and death, transmission of textual and visual knowledge, and religious ritual, including mortuary customs, apotropaic rites, divination, and sacrifice.

Additional information: Homepage   CV

Visitor

Daniela Summa 

Greek Epigraphy
Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften

Visitor in residence for: August 22nd - October 14th

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8271    Email: dsumma@ias.edu

Research Interest: Daniela Summa’s research fields are Greek Epigraphy as a historical and literary source, focusing on the editing of documents, as well as the history of classical scholarship.  She plans to conduct research on the correspondence between Louis Robert and Günther Klaffenbach (1929-1972), two of the most significant ancient historians and epigraphists of the 20th century.

Karina Urbach

Modern International Relations & Jewish Family History
University of London

Visitor in residence for: Long-term visitor 

While at IAS
Phone: 609-734-8314    Email: urbachk@ias.edu

Project Title: The Gatekeepers

Research Abstract: Karina Urbach has worked on the role of elites in the International Relations of Europe in the first half of the 20th century. Her new project will focus on the impact former Nazis had on German society after 1945. The title of her current research project is The Gatekeepers: Despite excellent micro-studies, so far there does not exist a general work on the continuity of Nazi elites in postwar Germany. The book wants to change this by looking at a wide sample of West German institutions – the arts, the universities, the judiciary and the economy. It will ask the broader question of how much a society can escape from its past.

Additional information: Homepage  CV

Helmut Zander

History of Religion
Universität Freiburg 

Visitor in residence for: September 1st to November 19th

While at IAS
Phone: 609 951-4567    Email: zander@ias.edu

Research Abstract: Helmut Zander is preparing a paper on the question, how we can understand long-term developments (“tradition”) in religions, which are supposed to exist over centuries or millennia. The broader context of his research is the analysis of cultural “grammars”, which are supposed to shape cultural “identities”.

Additional information: Homepage